The mandated function of the Alabama Surface Mining Commission is to regulate the surface coal mining industry in Alabama and to ensure the reclamation of land which has been surfaced mined or which has suffered from the effect of underground coal mining.
Surface mining is an operation that involves the recovery of shallow coal deposits from the ground through the removal of overlying rock by excavators and dump trucks Surface coal mining process Typically surface coal mines work to depths of 50 to 100m.
Surface mining is used when the coal seam is located relatively close to the surface, making underground mining impractical. Before a company can surface mine, it must gather information about the site regarding growing conditions, climate, soil composition, vegetation, wildlife, etc.
Impact of greenhouse gases on surface coal mining in ...
The coal life cycle emissions were equal to 3.29 × 10−2 kg CO2eq per kg of coal, of which direct emissions accounted for 98.3% of GHG, in which the major part was due to fugitive methane emissions from surface mining and post-mining coal crushing and handling operations.
A surface coal mine operator must go through a lengthy process of obtaining a permit. The permit is an actual plan that establishes a reasonable expectation that mining and reclamation can be completed without any adverse effects to human welfare and the environment.
Coal mining is the process of extracting coal from the ground. Coal is valued for its energy content, and, since the 1880s, has been widely used to generate electricity. Steel and cement industries use coal as a fuel for extraction of iron from iron ore and for cement production.
Strip mining is the process of scaping the coal from the top surface of the ground. The problem with peat is that it has a very low heat value per kilogram of the fuel burned. In addition, strip mining is ecologically very destructive unless the mining company makes a …
Coal Mining and Transportation - Energy Explained, Your ...
Many U.S. coal deposits, called coal beds or seams, are near the earth's surface, while others are deep underground. Modern mining methods allow coal miners to easily reach most of the nation's coal reserves and to produce about three times more coal in one hour than in 1978.
Layers of rock and dirt above and between the coal seams are removed. Coal seams are removed with excess soil and rock placed in an adjacent valley. Large scale earth moving equipment is used to excavate and remove coal from lower layers. The equipment used depends on the method and scale of the surface mining method being employed.
CHAPTER 11 Mining Technology - Princeton University
surface mining and reclamation techniques and equipment include the thickness and character of the overburden, the dip of the seam, the thickness and number of recov-erable seams, and the physical and chemical characteristics of the coal. The three surface mining techniques most widely used in the West are area strip, open pit, and terrace pit ...
There are two basic classes of mining: mining at the Earth's surface and mining underground…Surface mining accounts for two thirds of the world's solid minerals, and is predominantly used in obtaining sand, gravel, crushed stone, phosphates, coal, copper, iron and aluminum…
Underground v.s. Surface Coal Mines: Is Deep Drilling ...
Longwall mining accounts for 50 percent of coal mines in the world and is much safer than other methods of coal mining. If done right, the process is much more profitable as resource recovery is dramatically improved (about 80 percent compared with about 60 percent for room-and-pillar).
The Mining Process | Introduction | underground COAL
The Mining Process. Once a mining lease has been awarded to an operator, exploration (i.e. evaluation of the resource) takes place, followed by a planning and development process before excavation or mining …
Under the provisions of the Federal Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977, P.L. 95-87, the U.S. Department of Interior, Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement, has implemented a federal program for coal mining in Michigan.
The Actual Difference Between Surface and Underground Mining
Surface mining is commonly used to extract coal and copper, and increasingly, precious metals like gold. Underground mining is used for gold, platinum, zinc, lead, and increasingly, coal. As can be seen, surface mining is much more advantageous than its counterpart.
Mining: Mining, process of extracting useful minerals from the surface of the Earth, including the seas. A mineral, with a few exceptions, is an inorganic substance occurring in nature that has a definite chemical composition and distinctive physical properties or molecular structure.
Excellence in Surface Coal Mining Reclamation Awards
The Excellence in Surface Coal Mining Reclamation Awards are presented to coal mining companies that achieve the most exemplary coal mine reclamation in the nation. Past winners have demonstrated a commitment to sound mining practices and effective reclamation plans that enhanced beneficial post-mining use of the land.
Surface coal mining techniques, which account for the majority of national coal production and roughly 42 percent of West ia's coal production, involve the mechanical removal of overlying native earth and rock or "overburden" to reach underlying coal seams.
Surface Coal Mining. The primary methods of surface coal mining used in Pennsylvania are: Strip Mining: Layers of soil and rock overburden are removed the coal exposed coal seam is excavated.The area is then backfilled, regraded, and replanted during the reclamation process.
OFFICE of SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION and ENFORCEMENT U.S. Department of the Interior Trapper Mine, C-07519 and C-079641, Environmental Assessment SURFACE MINING PROCESS • Construct structures to control runoff and protect surface and ground water quality. ... • Break up coal by ripping with a dozer or using explosives.
Surface Coal Mining and Reclamation in ND Guy Welch ND Public Service Commission. Surface Coal Mines in North Dakota. Approximately 1500 acres are disturbed each year. History of Reclamation in ND •First surface mining law passed in 1969 ... Coal Mining –The Process Surface Water Management.
Coal Mining Methods Underground Mining ... In the extraction process, numerous pillars of coal are left untouched in certain parts of the ... generally causing some surface subsidence. Extraction by longwall mining is an almost continuous operation involving the use of self-advancing hydraulic roof supports, a
Vol 40, No 1 - Surface Mining of Coal - The Kansas School ...
Coal surface mining involves a series of steps: 1) explore for deposits of coal near the surface, 2) prepare the surface for the mining operation, 3) drill, 4) blast, 5) remove the overburden, 6) load the coal, 7) haul the coal, and 8) reclaim the surface of the land to what it was like before mining.